Discoveries for those caring for children…
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“Differences challenge assumptions.”
— Anne Wilson Schaef
Talking with Families (Part 2) – Bringing Up Sensitive Topics
By Roxie Nestlerode, Early Learning Specialist
Addressing sensitive topics with families will take planning and preparation. The key step for preparing to talk with families about sensitive topics happens when children and families first enter your program. Establishing a positive rapport with families, getting to know all children and families, and having consistent communication with families and other staff will make it easier to approach sensitive topics. Having a partnership with families will open the door for conversation, but to keep the conversation flowing, you'll need to take a few more steps before jumping in.
Are you aware that Penn State Better Kid Care provides comprehensive curricula in early childhood development? The curriculum follows the Pennsylvania Core Body of Knowledge and offers multiple course titles to choose from. Each course offers numerous Distance Education lessons, providing a well-rounded approach to meet your professional development needs. Two types of lessons are offered: on demand web lessons and lessons by mail. You can view the comprehensive list of professional development web lessons and lessons by mail. Lessons can be sorted by Core Body of Knowledge area, CDA code, and School-age code. Some On Demand lessons are offered in Spanish (Recursos en Español). To access the entire Penn State Better Kid Care Distance Education curriculum on line, visit us at www.betterkidcare.psu.edu and choose your course of study today!
New On Demand Lessons:
Available as On Demand web lessons. To complete any of these lessons on your computer and receive credit and a certificate, you will need to register.
Are You Ready for a Child with Special Needs? [K1 C1, CDA 8] Caring for a child with special needs can be very rewarding. Learn how to balance your days and plan a program that meets the needs of all the children in your care. Discover how you can support children with special needs by working as a team with their family, therapists, and doctors. (1 hour)
Art Appreciation 101 for Young Children [K2 C1, CDA 2] Believe it or not, even infants can begin to appreciate art. Learn how to introduce and talk with children of all ages about key factors that define art and elements that make up art forms. Discover creative ways to talk with children about their art work and how to acknowledge the art work of others. (2 hour)
Family Child Care: Learning Environments for Infants [K2 C1, CDA 1] Learn what is important to know about providing and equipping a family child care early learning program that supports the growth and development of infants. (1 hour)
The On Demand system may be unavailable on Sundays from 7 a.m. - 9 a.m. (EST) for system maintenance.
¡Lecciones en Español!
Several On Demand lessons are now available in Spanish! Better Kid Care will be translating more in the future. For more information on lessons in Spanish, visit Recursos en Español (Spanish Resources).
1:00 – 2:30 EST
APRIL 25, 2012
Learn about Better Kid Care professional development resources for directors to use with staff. Implement our online lessons, new staff orientation, videos with discussion starters, CDA resources, social media, and research-to-practice resources with staff in your centers.
No registration is required for the webinar.
Log onto: https://meeting.psu.edu/bkc/
Use the Guest Login and type your name to enter the meeting room.
Now Online: New Staff Orientation!
Penn State Better Kid Care now offers an online version of New Staff Orientation (NSO). This is the same New Staff Orientation content delivered in our new On Demand format. The On Demand format makes it easy for staff to read the content, watch the video segments, and complete the assessments online. A certificate can be printed upon completion of the entire 15-hour NSO. The cost is the same, $5.00 for 15 hours of professional development.
Go to the On Demand Distance Education page to get started with the online version of New Staff Orientation.
Family-Provider Relationships: A Multidisciplinary Review of High Quality Practices and Associations with Family, Child, and Provider Outcomes – This brief by Child Trends is a literature review and identifies common practices for creating positive family-practitioner relationships; looks at the effects of those practices on outcomes for children, families, and practitioners; and provides a framework for developing assessments for family-practitioner relationships.
Family Engagement in Early Childhood: A Resource Guide for Early Learning Challenge Grant Recipients – From the Harvard Family Research Project, this resource guide contains resources for early care and education programs to strengthen relationships with families and support family engagement within programs. Based on the Race to the Top – Early Learning Challenge grant areas, the resources reflect national trends and goals for family engagement.
All that glitters … crystals are beautiful, magical, and scientific. Here are some sparkling play ideas!
Pan for crystals – Mix crystal beads into the sand in the sand table and add sifters.
Add some bling – Add sparkly pipe cleaners, beads, and sequins to your art materials.
Go on a treasure hunt – Put some crystal beads in a few small drawstring bags and hide them throughout the play area (inside or outside). Then make clues and let the children find the “treasure” sacks.
Grow crystals – Use salt and water or sugar and water to make crystals. (see the recipes at end of the enews)
Turn the Page
This is so great, Dr. Seuss is 108!
Across country, early care and learning programs and after school programs will be celebrating Dr. Seuss’s birthday. We all know the classics, such as The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, and The Lorax, but Dr. Seuss published 46 children’s books over his career. Have you read any of these?
Dr. Seuss’s Sleep Book by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394800915
Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are? by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394827198
Bartholomew and the Oobleck by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394800753
I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394800923
McElligot’s Pool by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394800834
Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394800869
The Bippolo Seed and Other Lost Stories by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0375864350
And his birthday party wouldn’t be complete without these!
Happy Birthday to You! by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0394800761
Dr. Seuss’s Happy Birthday, Baby! by Dr. Seuss, published by Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN-10: 0375846212
Tips for reading with children:
Illinois Early Learning Project – Sharing Books with Your Baby The tip sheet is available in English, Spanish, and Polish.
Ideas and resources that you can use for involving families in your program, engaging families in early learning, encouraging family time, and supporting families in need. This month our topic is…children’s health.
Keeping children healthy is a responsibility that you share with parents. Staying up-to-date with health policies and procedures can be hard, especially for families. They may not have access to current information or health resources. Sharing information through newsletters, giving information to families when a bug strikes, encouraging preventive health practices, compiling a file on community health resources, promoting local health fairs, and bringing in health professionals for family involvements events are ways to help families learn about what they can do to keep their children healthy. Here are some sources for current health information, resources for families and child care programs, and best practices.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - This CDC has an extensive index for health information. The “A-X Index” is listed at the top of the home page. You can receive email updates from the CDC on health topics.
Healthy Child Care Pennsylvania - ECELS has resources, self-learning modules, and news alerts for child care programs.
healthychildren.org - This website from the American Academy of Pediatrics has a wide selection of resources for families and practitioners and highlights updates to children’s health policies and procedures.
Children’s Oral Health - This website from the American Academy of Pediatrics has information on oral health for children.
healthfinder.gov- Under the Affordable Care Act insurance companies are required to cover the cost of many preventative screenings and vaccines. In the Quick Guide to Healthy Living families can find lists of covered preventative services and more information about services for children.
NEW! Caring for Our Children – 3rd Edition - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Public Health Association (APHA), and the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (NRC) has revised Caring for Our Children, and it is available in book form or as a download.
UPDATE! Recommended Immunizations Schedules– The 2012 Immunization schedules are now available.
More resources for families:
Screen-free Week: April 30 - May 6 – Turn off the screens and spend a week together! Fun family time activities could be playing outside, riding bikes, playing board games, doing a jigsaw puzzle, cooking, or just talking.
Health Radio – Podcasts on a wide variety of health topics with a section devoted to children’s health.
Better Kid Care Resources for Families:
Action ideas, and
Caring for children from military-connected families requires a comprehensive understanding of their unique needs and strengths. Each month, Great I.D.E.A.S for Children from Military-Connected Families features research-based information to support and increase the quality of caring for children from military-connected families. This month’s highlight is on … change.
Developed by Christine Belinda, Early Learning Specialist
Change – it is constant in our live, but seems to affect each of us differently. The adults caring for young children in a primary role (parents and teachers) have first-hand clues into what change might tell us about children.
Identifying changes children experience prepares us to better understand each child’s unique needs, such as how they cope with and process change.
Read the full article in the newest Great IDEAS! Resource page: Change and Young Children
Coming to Pennsylvania –
The Military Child Education Coalition Professional Development Institute
“Living in the New Normal Institute: Helping Children Thrive in Good and Challenging Times”
March 22-23, 2012 State College, PA
For information: www.MilitaryChild.org
More for You:
Visit the CYTTAP website to access a variety of helpful resources, including Great Ideas, Parent Topics, Vodcasts, and more, for supporting military-connected families.
Celebrate the Military Child this April! Sponsored by the Department of Defense Military Community and Family Policy, the Month of the Military Child is a time to applaud military families and their children for the daily sacrifices they make and the challenges they overcome. Read ideas about how to celebrate Month of the Military Child from the Real Warriors campaign, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, and Army OneSource.
Join Operation: Military Kids and Penn State Better Kid Care at the 4th Annual Family Fun Fair! This year's event is Sunday, March 25th, 1:00 – 4:00 pm, at the Snider Agricultural Arena on the University Park campus. For more information about the Family Fun Fair call (814) 865-2264.
School Age Child Care
Lights On Afterschool 2012 Poster Contest
The contest to design the poster is now open. Sponsored by the Afterschool Alliance. Deadline: May 1, 2012
Due to the hours of operation of after-school programs, it can be difficult to go on field trips due or bring in guest speakers. So consider virtual trips and guest speakers to add to your activities and help children pursue their interests. Here are a few virtual samples:
Kids.gov – Some videos for exploring interesting places.
The U.S. Capitol Building:
The National Aquarium:
The Smithsonian – Videos from scientists talking about their work with animals, bugs, and more!
More School Age Resources
Visit the Better Kid Care School Age link here.
News from the CDA Council:
CDA Renewal Amnesty Program
Did your CDA expire before you were able to complete the renewal requirements? Starting March 1, 2012, the CDA Council will launch the Renewal Amnesty Program. If your expired CDA was issued in the last ten years (Jan. 2002 – Dec. 2011), you can apply for renewal. You must complete all renewal requirements and submit your renewal application by December 31, 2012.
CDA Renewal Requirements:
Renewal Packets are available for purchase from the Council Bookstore.
CDA + Better Kid Care = Success!
Check out our revised materials that reflect recent updates from the CDA Council!
Penn State Better Kid Care and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs are teaming up to bring you "Go Green for Kids," a monthly tip to help you provide a healthier and safer environment for the children in your care. IPM works to promote healthy alternatives for pest management to lower children’s exposure to both pests and pesticides through a variety of educational programs. Resources for children, teachers, and parents are available on the IPM website. This month's focus is on…choosing safer plastics.
Contributed by Amber Brunskill, PA IPM Program, email@example.com, 814-865-7994
Plastic, plastic, everywhere!
Plastic products can be found in almost every part of our life, many times to our benefit. But using plastic products comes at a cost. Many plastics are developed from petroleum, a non-renewable resource, and some chemicals used in plastics are linked to negative health and environmental effects. Young, developing children in a child care facility are surrounded with plastic toys, baby bottles, and sippy cups, which can potentially expose them to harmful chemicals.
Understanding how all plastics are made, what the chemical components are, and how they can release toxins is very complicated. However, there are several chemicals common in plastics that we know are of particular concern: phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and styrene.
Phthalates (pronounced THAL-ates) can be found in soft pliable plastic toys including teething rings, dolls, and nap mats. This class of chemicals improves the flexibility of plastics, and is used most commonly in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Phthalates are also common in air fresheners, lotions, cosmetics, and other personal care products and can be used to bind fragrances to products. Thus phthalates can be inhaled when breathing in fumes or fragrances, ingested when children chew on plastic toys, and absorbed through the skin with the use of lotions and other similar products. Exposure to phthalates is linked to hormonal disruptions, birth defects, developmental problems, asthma, early puberty, and some cancers. PVC plastics are labeled with a #3 recycling code and have either “PVC” or “V” written under the recycling symbol.
Bisphenol A, or BPA, is a chemical used to manufacture a hard, clear plastic called polycarbonate plastic. Products such as baby bottles, sippy cups, and water bottles can be made from this type of plastic and can leach BPA into food and liquids. BPA can also be found in the epoxy lining of canned foods. Most exposures to BPA occur through ingestion, although dermal contact can result in exposure as well. BPA mimics estrogen and disrupts hormones. Exposure to BPA is linked to miscarriages, birth defects, early puberty, prostate cancer, breast cancer, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Polycarbonate plastics are labeled with a #7 recycling code and may, or may not, have “PC” written beneath the recycling symbol. Often just the word “Other” appears below the recycling symbol.
Styrene chemicals are found in polystyrene plastic products such as Styrofoam containers and cups, egg cartons, and non-transparent plastic silverware. They can leach into food products especially when the plastic is heated. In animal studies, styrene adversely affects kidney, liver, stomach, and red blood cells. Long-term exposure to styrene chemicals can be toxic to the brain and nervous system. Exposure to styrene can also occur from off-gassing of building materials, secondhand cigarette smoke, and auto exhaust fumes. Polystyrene plastic products have a #6 recycling code and “PS” below the recycling symbol.
How do you protect the children in your care from harmful chemicals found in plastics?
Professional Development Highlights
The following information highlights upcoming professional development opportunities available for early childhood practitioners:
PA Keys to Quality - Professional Development Training Calendar - Are you looking for training specifically in your area? Visit the PA Keys to Quality web site to locate and search the professional development training calendar. Go to PAKEYS.ORG and Log in, Click on Calendar, Search the Calendar, and Contact the Pennsylvania Early Learning Keys to Quality office with any questions at 800-284-6031.
March 6-10 – NACCRRA – The National Child Care Policy Symposium, Washington, DC. NACCRRA Symposium information
March 14-16 – Early Education and Technology for Children Conference, Salt Lake City, UT. EETC Conference information
March 28-31 – ACEI 2012 – Annual International Conference: Global Summit on Childhood, Washington, DC. ACEI 2012 Annual Conference information
March 28-31 – 9th Annual National Training Institute on Effective Practices/Supporting Young Children’s Social and Emotional Development: Addressing Challenging Behavior, Clearwater, FL. Addressing Challenging Behavior National Training Institute registration information (Registration is limited)
April 2-4 – 2012 NAA Annual Convention, Dallas, TX. 2012 NAA Convention information
April 16-20 – Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (OCAN) National Conference: Celebrating the Past – Imaging the Future, Washington, DC. OCAN conference information
April 18-19 – 2012 PA Council of Children, Youth and Family Services: Lighting the Way to a Brighter Future, Harrisburg, PA. PCCYFS conference information
April 18-20 – 9th Annual Young Child Expo & Conference, New York, NY. Young Child Expo & Conference information
April 19 – Emotional Brains and Education Symposium: Affect, Stress and Academic Achievement, New York, NY. Emotional Brains and Education Symposium information
April 19-21 – Ohio Early Care & Education Conference: SOLVE your toughest challenges!, Columbus, OH. OAEYC Conference information
April 23 – Building Foundations Strengthening Families, Preventing Child Abuse Summit 2012, Raleigh, NC. Summit 2012 information
April 25-27 – 28th Annual NACCP National Conference: How Successful Directors Manage, San Antonio, TX. 2012 NACCP Conference information
April 25-28 – 2012 BOOST Conference: Redefining Leadership in Out-of-School Time, Palm Springs, CA. BOOST conference information
April 26-29 – International Symposia for Contemplative Studies, Denver, CO. Symposia information
April 30-May 3 – 2012 National Smart Start Conference, Greensboro, NC. Smart Start conference information Registration to open Dec. 1, 2011
May 2-3 – Save the Date! Pennsylvania Head Start Association Spring Conference: One Clear, Powerful Voice!, Harrisburg, PA PHSA Conference information
May 4-6 – 32nd Learning & The Brain Conference: Web-connected Minds: How Technology Transforms Brains, Teaching and Attention, Arlington, VA. Learning & the Brain Conference information
May 11-12 – DVAEYC Annual Conference: Family Matters – Engaging Families Partnering for Success, Philadelphia, PA. DVAEYC Annual Conference information
May 14-16 – 2012 National Early Childhood Inclusion Institute: High Quality Inclusion: What Does it Look Like? How Do We Do It? Chapel Hill, NC. 2012 Inclusion Institute information
May 17-19 – McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadership: 2012 Leadership Connections Conference, Chicago, IL. 2012 Leadership Connections information
June 10-13 – NAEYC National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development, Indianapolis, IN. Institute information
June 11-14 – 16th Annual Birth to Three Institute: Growing Minds and Hearts … Children, Families, and Communities, Washington, DC. Birth to Three Institute information
June 18-20 – Save the Date! Head Start 11th National Research Conference: Effective Practices in an Age of Diversity and Change, Washington, DC. Registration to open in February 2012. National Research Conference information
June 19-21 – Save the Date! 25th Annual Bank Street Infancy Institute: Infants, Toddlers and Families: Supporting Their Growth, New York, NY. Infancy Institute information
June 22-24 – 8th Annual North American Reggio Emilia Alliance Summer Conference: Dialogues for Quality in Education, Portland, OR. NAREA Summer Conference information
June 27-29 – Save the Date! Military Child Education Coalition 2012 Annual Conference: Military Kids: Shining from Sea to Sea, Grapevine, TX.
July 15-18 – CAYL Institute 2012 National Conference for Principals and Child Care Directors: What Really Works? Impact and Innovation for Young Learners, Baltimore, MD. CAYL conference information
July 23-27 – National Institute on Out-of-School Time Summer Seminars 2012, Boston, MA. NIOST Summer Seminars information
July 25-27 – 2012 National Association of Family Child Care Conference: The Magic of Family Child Care, Atlanta, GA. 2012 NAFCC Conference information
NAFCC’s Annual Sue Stevens 4 Star Accreditation Essay Contest – The Sue Stevens 4-Star Contest recognizes an accredited provider who has demonstrated passion for family child care and for quality care through an essay contest. This contest was created to honor Sue Stevens from Louisville, Colorado who was in the first group of providers to become accredited by NAFCC in 1988 and is the longest consecutive NAFCC accredited provider. The winner of this contest is honored and receives an award at the Annual Conference Accreditation Reception and VIP seating with Sue Stevens at the conference luncheon. 4-Star Essay Contest Application
Read Tennessee – The Pre-K Reading and Language Teacher Toolkit highlights best practices and has resources for helping children develop language and pre-literacy skills.
eXtension Alliance for Better Child Care – Looking for fingerplays and songs? Check out this database from Cooperative Extension!
Teaching Tolerance – The Teacher Perception Tool was designed to help teachers think about the choices they make with children and how their perceptions of children may influence their decisions.
April 22-28, 2012
Planning information and resources
National Environmental Education Week: April 15 – 21 – This year’s theme is Greening STEM: The Environment as Inspiration for 21st Century Learning. Check out the website for planning toolkits and other information.
Let’s G.O.! (Get Outside): April 2012 – This month long campaign encourages children to “get outside” and enjoy nature. Check out the website for a toolkit and other resources.
Earth Day 2012: April 22 – Join the global celebration and help children learn about the environment by doing an “act of green” with your group on Earth Day!
Screen-free Week: April 30 - May 6 – Encourage children and families to turn off screens for a week and enjoy other activities, such as hanging out with family and friends, playing outside, playing board games, doing puzzles, and doing crafts. Get an organizer’s kit to help you plan a fun-filled week away from a screen.
Provider Appreciation Day, May 11 – For ideas to celebrate early care and education providers, visit Provider Appreciation Day.org.
Rachel Carson “A Sense of Wonder” Contest – An intergenerational poetry, essay, photography, and dance contest sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Environmental Protection Agency, Generations United, the Dance Exchange, Rachel Carson Council, and the National Center for Creative Aging. Deadline: June 10. Contest information
Let’s Move! Child Care State Challenge – NACCRRA, the Centers for Disease Control, and the Office of Child Care are sponsoring a nationwide competition to recognize participation in the Let’s Move! Child Care initiative. Deadline: April 1.
Grants & Funding Opportunities
DoSomething.org – Seed grants for community action projects. One grant is awarded each week. Amount: $500. Deadline: Rolling.
The Wal-Mart Foundation – Grants for education projects and health and wellness projects. Amount: $1,000 - $5,000. Deadline: Rolling.
LEGO Children's Fund – Grants for programs with specific, identifiable needs primarily for early childhood education and development that is directly related to creativity and for technology and communication projects that advance learning opportunities. Grants are awarded on a quarterly basis. Amount: Award amounts vary. Deadline: January 15
Early Childhood Reading
We Give Books – A new digital initiative that provides access to award-winning children’s picture books for reading to young children online. The program was created by the Penguin Group and Pearson Foundation.
Reading Resource Project – Free books for preK-2 literacy programs. Programs pay for shipping. Deadline: Rolling
Verizon Foundation – Grants for education and literacy programs. Deadline: Rolling
Captain Planet Foundation – Seed grants are available to schools and non-profit environmental and educational organizations for hands-on projects that engage youth in improving the environment. Amount: Up to $500 Deadline: May 31
Health and Wellness
The Rite Aid Foundation – Grants for health and wellness projects. Grants are awarded on a quarterly basis. Amount: Award amounts vary. Deadline: April 1
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We would love to hear from you! Email your ideas to firstname.lastname@example.org or call 814-867-4687.
Pour water into the jar. Add salt by the spoonful, stirring to dissolve. Add salt until it will no longer dissolve. (You may not use the full 1/3 cup.) Hang or loop a pipe cleaner over the pencil so that the ends are hanging down. Place the pencil over the jar openings so that the pipe cleaner is hanging into the salt solution. Let it sit overnight. Look at the growing crystals the next day. Leave the pipe cleaner in the solution until it evaporates. (This will take a few days.) Use string to hang the pipe cleaners once the crystals are done growing.
Kohl, MaryAnn, and Jean Potter. Science Arts. Bellington, WA: Bright Ring Publishing, 1993.
Boil the water in the sauce pan. Mix in the sugar until dissolved. Pour the sugar mixture into the jar. Tie a short piece of string (less than the height of the jar) onto each paper clip. Tie each paper clip onto the pencil. Place the pencil over the jar openings so that the paper clips are hanging into the sugar solution. Let it sit overnight. Look at the growing crystals the next day. Hang the pipe cleaners once the crystals are done growing.
Optional: For colored crystals add a few drops of food coloring to the sugar mixture.
Paulu, Nancy, and Margery Martin. Helping Your Child Learn Science. Washington, DC: The U.S. Department of Education, 1992.
Feature Article References
Baker, Amy C. and Lynn A. Manfredi/Petitt. Relationships, the Heart of Quality Care – Creating Community Among Adults in Early care Settings. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC, 2004.
Cheatham, Gregory A. and Rosa Milagros Santos. “Collaborating with Families from Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Backgrounds.” Young Children 66, no. 5 (September 2011): 76-82.
Christian, Linda Garris. “Understanding Families – Applying Family Systems Theory to Early Childhood Practice.” Young Children 61, no. 1 (January 2006): 12 -20.
Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center (ECLKC). “Tip Card to Help Staff Talk About Sensitive Issues.” The Office of Head Start. Accessed January 26, 2012. http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/family/Family%20and%20Community%20Partnerships/Crisis%20Support/Community%20Support/TipCardstoHelp.htm
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. Diversity in Early Care and Education, 5th edition. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC, 2008.
Ramamoorthy, Saraswathy and Judith A. Myers-Wells. “Communicating Sensitively with Parents.” Purdue University. Accessed January 26, 2012. http://www.ces.purdue.edu/providerparent/parent-provider%20relationships/communicatingsensitively.htm
Rockwell, Robert E., Lynda C. Andre, and Mary K. Hawley. Families and Educators as Partners, 2nd edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010.
Disclaimer: Where trade names appear, no discrimination is intended, and no endorsement by Penn State Cooperative Extension is implied.